Andrew Goodwin in his book, 'Dancing in the Distraction Factory' writes about what he defines as the characteristics of music videos.
1. Music videos demonstrate genre characteristics. (E.g. A dance routine for a boy/girl band or a performance in a rock video).
2. There is a relationship between the lyrics and the visuals. (Either illustrative, amplifying or contradicting).
3. There is a relationship between the music and the visuals
4. The demands of the record label will include the need for lots of close ups of the artist/s and the artist/s may develop motifs which reoccur across their work. (A visual style)
5. There is frequently reference to the notion of looking (voyeurism). (Screens within screens, telescopes, etc. and a particularly voyeuristic treatment of the female body)
6. There is often intertextual reference (to films, tv programmes, other music videos, etc.)
7. There are 3 types of music video (performance based, narrative based and abstract) however more than one can be used in one music video.